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National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Standards

Historical Thinking Standards for Grades 5-12

Standard 1: Chronological Thinking

A. Distinguish between past, present, and future time.

E. Interpret data presented in time lines and create time lines.

F. Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration; explain historical continuity and change.

Standard 2: Historical Comprehension

A. Identify the author or source of the historical document or narrative and assess its credibility.

D. Differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations.

F. Appreciate historical perspectives.

G. Draw upon data in historical maps

H. Utilize visual, mathematical, and quatitative data.

Standard 3: Historical Analysis and Interpretation

A. Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas.

B. Consider multiple perspectives.

C. Analyze cause-and-effect relationships and multiple causation, including
the importance of the individual, the influence of ideas.

D. Draw comparisons across eras and regions in order to define enduring issues

J. Hypothesize the influence of the past.

Standard 4: Historical Research Capabilities

A. Formulate historical questions

B. Obtain historical data from a variety of sources

Standard 5: Historical Issues - Analysis and Decision-Making

A. Identify issues and problems in the past.

B. Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances

C. Identify relevant historical antecedents

D. Evaluate alternative courses of action.

Geography Standards

Standard 1: How to Use Maps and Other Geographic Representations, Tools, and
Technologies to Acquire, Process, and Report Information From a Spatial
Perspective (The world in spacial terms)

Standard 2: How to Use Mental Maps to Organize Information About People, Places, and Environments in a Spatial Context (The world in spacial terms)

Standard 3: How to Analyze the Spatial Organization of People, Places, and Environments on Earth’s Surface (Places and Regions)

Standard 4: The Physical and Human Characteristics of Places (Places and Regions)

Standard 6: How Culture and Experience Influence People’s Perceptions of Places and Regions (Places and Regions)

Standard 11: The Patterns and Networks of Economic Interdependence on Earth’s Surface (Human Systems)

Standard 12: The Processes, Patterns, and Functions of Human Settlement (Human Systems)

Standard 13: How the Forces of Cooperation and Conflict Among People Influence the Division and Control of Earth’s Surface (Human Systems)

Standard 14: How Human Actions Modify the Physical Environment (Environment and Society)

Standard 15: How Physical Systems Affect Human Systems (Environment and Society)

Standard 16: The Changes That Occur in the Meaning, Use, Distribution, and Importance of Resources (Environment and Society)

Standard 17: How to Apply Geography to Interpret the Past (The Uses of Geography)

Standard 18: How to Apply Geography to Interpret the Present and Plan for the Future (The Uses of Geography)

Economic Standards

Standard 1: Scarcity

Standard 2: Decision Making

Standard 3: Allocation

Standard 4: Incentives

Standard 8: Role of Prices

Standard 11: Money and Inflation

Standard 13: Income

Standard 14: Entrepreneurship

National Educational Technology Standards

Standard 1: Demonstrate creativity and innovation

A. apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes

B. create original works as a means of personal or group expression.

C. use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues

D. identify trends and forecast possibilities.

Standard 2: Communicate and collaborate

A. interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a variety of digital environments and media.

B. communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.

Standard 3: Conduct research and use information

A. plan strategies to guide inquiry.

B. locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.

C. evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks.

D. process data and report results.

Standard 4: Think critically, solve problems, and make decisions

A. identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation

B. plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.

C. collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.

D. use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

Standard 5: Digital Citizenship

A. advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.

B. exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity.

C. demonstrate personal responsibility for lifelong learning.

D. exhibit leadership for digital citizenship.

Standard 6: Technology Operations and Concepts

A. understand and use technology systems

B. select and use applications effectively and productively.

C. troubleshoot systems and applications.

Colorado State Social Studies Standards

5th Grade


Concept 1: Analyze historical sources from multiple points of view to develop an understanding of historical context

Students can:

B. Examine significant historical documents

C. Create timelines of eras and themes in North America

Concept 1 (4th Grade): Organize and sequence events to understand the concepts of chronology and cause and effect in the history of Colorado.

Students can:

A. Construct a timeline of events showing the relationship of events in Colorado history with events in United States and world history

B. Analyze primary source historical accounts related to Colorado history to understand cause-and-effect relationships

C. Explain the cause-and-effect relationships in the interactions among people and cultures that have lived in or migrated to Colorado

Concept 2 (4th Grade): The historical eras, individuals, groups, ideas, and themes in Colorado history and their relationships to key events in the United States.

Students can:

A. Analyze various eras in Colorado history and the relationship between these eras and eras in United States history, and the changes in Colorado over time

D. Describe the impact of various technological developments


5th Grade

Concept 1: Use various geographic tools and sources to answer questions about the geography of the
United States.

Students can:

A. Answer questions about regions of the United States using various types of maps

B. Use geographic tools to identify, locate, and describe places and regions in the United States and
suggest reasons for their location

C. Locate resources in the United States and describe the influence of access on the development of local and regional communities

Concept 2: Causes and consequences of movement.

Students can:

A. Identify variables associated with discovery, exploration, and migration

C. Describe and analyze how specific physical and political features influenced historical events,
movements, and adaptation to the environment

E. Give examples of the influence of geography on the history of the United States

Concept 1 (4th Grade): Use several types of geographic tools to answer questions about the geography of Colorado.

Students can:

A. Answer questions about Colorado regions using maps and other geographic tools

C. Create and investigate geographic questions about Colorado in relation to other places

D. Illustrate, using geographic tools, how places in Colorado have changed and developed over time due to human activity

E. Describe similarities and differences between the physical geography of Colorado and its neighboring states


4th Grade

Concept 1: People respond to positive and negative incentives

Students can:

A. Define positive and negative economic incentives

B. Give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced in Colorado in different historical periods and their connection to economic incentives

C. Explain how the productive resources – natural, human, and capital – of Colorado have influenced the types of goods produced and services provided

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